Business Is A Life

(vehicle-to-grid, or V2G) in power distribution networks [6]. These moving demands have significant
influence on power networks even if large scale EV demand is not accommodated in a suitable way [7,8].
An EV can be considered a flexible load that can be charged throughout the day instead of following a
rigid charging schedule [9,10]. The flexibility of the EV demand will improve the operation of power
systems in terms of flattening the load curve on main substation transformers, providing, in addition,
peak shaving services, reduced power system losses, reduced aging of transformers and lines, and
increased renewable energy penetration [11] as well as providing financial support [9–18]. In an
uncontrolled, or “dumb”, scenario, EVs should be charged when the owner arrives at his home [16,19];
however, potential problems such as sudden peak demand or sudden overloading could be shaped or
flattened by using a smart charging schedule for the EV’s batteries [20]. Moreover, the optimal
scheduling of EV battery charging could allow high EV penetration without requiring any upgrades to
the existing electricity infrastructure [21] (cables and transformers), thereby reducing investment
expenses. Optimal scheduling also offers the possibility of managing EVs as V2G [19,22–24],
providing ancillary services to network operators [25]. The optimisation of EV charging is a
demand-response strategy that must be incorporated into Demand-Side Management (DSM) and
implemented by a EV aggregator to improve the

Close Menu